Symptoms in Children
Please remember – Klinefelter’s Syndrome is a spectrum condition – its effects vary enormously in both incidence and severity. Some children and adults may have few symptoms while others may be more affected. Your child is lucky to have been diagnosed early. You will be able to access support from a speech therapist or in school if needed.
This is a list of possible symptoms which affect children with KS but, remember – they occur
often……. but not always!
This is the most common effect and is seen in most youngsters. Language often is delayed and they are likely to have some difficulty with receptive language i.e. understanding verbal information. The child may also have difficulty with articulation i.e. forming the required sounds. Speech therapy can make a huge difference and should be implemented as early as possible especially as delayed language will have a detrimental effect on education and social interaction.
Most KS youngsters are tall compared to their families, but this does not mean that all are very tall! If family members are generally on the short side then the KS person may be of average height ie tall compared to the rest of the family.
Generally the legs and arms are long, but the trunk is shorter than is usual.
Although most KS youngsters have an IQ in the normal range the majority do have some level of learning difficulty. These are often associated with difficulty processing information particularly if it is presented verbally.
It will help your child if you write things down. Keep instructions and sentences simple.
Visual aids are very effective as these children often have enhanced visual skills – use of colour is particularly useful.
Support at school can help your child to reach their potential.
Often KS children – and adults – find it very difficult to concentrate. Their short term memory is likely to be poor and they can be susceptible to noise. It is important to realise that often they are working twice as hard as their peers just to overcome these problems and their information/language processing difficulties.
Limiting distractions and breaking work down into manageable chunks can help.
Possible brain differences may be the cause of problems with concentration. In addition, those with KS often have enhanced sensory perception and this may affect concentration. Sometimes particularly acute hearing can make general noise and bustle very distracting. Others may be very aware of touch and find chafing clothing labels or texture are an added distraction.
Many KS babies have some degree of decreased muscle tone or floppiness which may require physiotherapy. As they get older most youngsters are not very coordinated and their long limbs can be more of a hindrance than a help! Most do not enjoy team games and can find it difficult to understand the rules. Often they dislike the physicality. However, many are good swimmers or cyclists.
Undescended testicle(s) are common. Usually doctors will recommend a small operation to bring them down and stitch them in place because otherwise there is an increased risk of them becoming cancerous.
Some boys may have a smaller than average penis.
Because of their poor expressive language skills they often have difficulty putting their thoughts, ideas and emotions into words. This can lead to considerable frustration. Always allow your child time to gather thoughts together – and to take in what has been said. People with KS are likely to have a reflective approach to learning meaning they need extra time to process the information.
Most do not enjoy team games possibly because they dislike the physicality but also because language and information processing problems may cause difficulty in understanding rules. Poor coordination may be another drawback.
In addition, the use of communal changing rooms may be disliked as physical differences are on view.
However many do well at individual sports such as swimming and cycling.
As language is essential for building and maintaining social relationships, the KS child may find it difficult to learn appropriate social behaviour. Many have autistic tendencies or may be on the autistic spectrum. They often find it difficult to interpret social cues such as facial expressions and they do not notice nuances or slight differences in behaviour. Literal interpretation of language can also cause difficulties. Professional intervention can help considerably.
KS children are usually less mature than their peers emotionally and socially. However they do continue to mature for longer and usually do catch up. They are also likely to look younger than their peers – an attribute they may appreciate more when they are older!
Dyspraxia, is a common disorder affecting coordination in children and adults. It can affect planning, organising and carrying out movements in the right order in everyday situations. Dyspraxia can also affect speech, perception and thought. Difficulties with memory and information processing are common.
Handwriting and general dexterity can be affected.